Prepared by CSBE Team, 2005
- Continued -
A variety of effects can be achieved through the use of stone (or marble or granite) for paving. Stone paving pieces can consist of geometrically cut pieces, usually squares or rectangles (figure 6), and also of irregular pieces. Irregular stone paving tiles usually are leftover pieces resulting from the stone cutting process, and can be obtained at relatively low prices (figure 7).
Different colors of stone can be combined to create varying effects. Also, if a surface will not be used primarily for utilitarian purposes such as walking or the playing of children, then consider covering it with loose pieces of crushed stone, such as decomposed gravel, or river run rocks. One advantage of such ground covers is that they usually do not require any bedding and can be placed directly on the soil (figure 8).
A major advantage of using stone as a paving material in Jordan is that the country's quarries produce a wide variety of very high-quality stones.
Ceramic tiles that are specially manufactured for outdoor use include various colors and textures (figure 9). They provide beautiful compositions that also are sturdy and that resist glare and slippage. However, ceramic tiles can be relatively expensive in relation to other paving choices such as concrete since their manufacturing is more complex. In addition, one might face difficulties after installing ceramic tiles if there is a need to carry out expansion or maintenance work since the original type of tiles might no longer be available in the market. Consequently, when using ceramic tiles, buy extra quantities and store them in case there is a need to replace any of the original tiles.
The joints between individual tiles can be used to provide effective touches that articulate outdoor paved surfaces. For example, use mortar that has a different color than the paving tiles to emphasize individual paving units. Also, widen or narrow the joints between tiles to either differentiate between individual tiles or to give the effect of a continuous surface. In addition, soil can be placed instead of mortar between the tiles and planted with a green cover to create pleasant combinations of green and paved areas. Such an arrangement does not require much irrigation since the water used for cleaning the paving tiles also serves to water the green areas planted between them.
Figure 1: Pre-cast concrete tiles.
Figure 2: Exposed aggregate tiles.
Figure 3: Interlocking concrete tiles.
Figure 4: Cast-in-place concrete.
Figure 5: Stamped concrete.
Figure 6: Regular pieces of stone.
Figure 7: Irregular pieces of stone.
Figure 8: Loose pieces of crushed stone.
Figure 9: Ceramic tiles.